Register online for Biology tuition on Vedantu. Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. Do you need help with your Homework? Are you preparing for Exams? Study without Internet Offline. Download pdf for free! Loading More Solutions Get this solution now! Download our free PDF or App. Get Solution now! Chapter 1 - The Living World.
Chapter 2 - Biological Classification. Chapter 3 - Plant Kingdom. Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom. Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants. Chapter 6 - Anatomy of Flowering Plants. Chapter 7 - Structural Organisation in Animals.
Chapter 9 - Biomolecules. Chapter 10 - Cell Cycle and Cell Division. Chapter 11 - Transport in Plants. Chapter 12 - Mineral Nutrition. Chapter 13 - Photosynthesis in Higher Plants. Chapter 14 - Respiration in Plants.In the immune system, interferons are a part of a physiological barriers b cellular barriers c physical barriers d cytokine barriers. The letter T in T-lymphocytes refers to a tonsil b thalamus c thymus d thyroid.
Use of anti-histamines and steroids gives a quick relief from a allergy b nausea c cough d fever. Diacetyl morphine is commonly known as a cocaine b hashish c ganja d heroin. Opium is extracted from a Atropa belladona b Papaver somniferum c Erythroxylum coca d Cannabis sativa.
Anti venom against snake poison contains [NCERT Exemplar] a antigens b antigen-antibody complexes c antibodies d enzymes. Which of the following glands is large sized at birth but reducies in size with aging? The substance produced by a cell on viral infection that can protect other cells from further infection is [NCERT Exemplar] a serotonin b colostrum c interferon d histamine.
Many diseases can be diagnosed by observing the symptoms in the patient. Which group of symptoms are indicative of pneumonia? Which type of immune response is responsible for such rejections? Saliva in the mouth, Mucus coating in respiratory tract, Tear in the eyes, Acid in the stomach. High fever, loss of appetite, stomach pain and constipation are some of the symptoms seen in a patient. How would the doctor confirm that the patient is suffering from typhoid and not amoebiasis?
Name one respiratory disease that infects the lung alveoli and one that does not infect the lungs. Answer: Explaination: — Pneumonia infects lung alveoli. Name two diseases whose spread can be controlled by the eradication of Aedes mosquitoes. Name the stage of Plasmodium that gains entry into the human, when bitten by an infected female Anopheles. Trace the route of Sporozoite at Plasmodium, when it enters the human body through the bite of female Anopheles, till its entry into RBCs.
Answer: Explaination: — Anopheles mosquito is the vector of malaria. Malaria, typhoid, pneumonia and amoebiasis are some of the human infectious diseases. Which ones of these are transmitted through mechanical carriers? How does haemozoin affect the human body, when released in blood during malarial infection? Answer: Explaination: Haemozoin causes the chill and high fever recurring at periodic intervals of days. Answer: Explaination: Gambusia feeds on the mosquito larvae and thereby helps in eliminating the mosquito vectors of the diseases like Malaria, Chikungunya, dengue, etc.
Answer: Explaination: The filarial worms live for many years in the lymphatic vessels of lower limbs and cause inflammation and swelling there. Answer: Explaination: Macrophages phagocytose and destroy the microbes pathogens and provide protection from diseases. How do monocytes act as a cellular barrier in humans to provide innate immunity?Q1: What are the various public health measures, which you would suggest as safeguard against infectious diseases?
Answer Public health measures are preventive measures which are taken to check the spread of various infectious diseases. These measures should be taken to reduce the contact with infectious agents. Some of these methods are: 1 Maintenance of personal and public hygiene:It is one of the most important methods of preventing infectious diseases. This measure includes maintaining a clean body, consumption of healthy and nutritious food, drinking clean water, etc.
Public hygienic includes proper disposal of waste material, excreta, periodic cleaning,and disinfection of water reservoirs. It helps in providing passive immunizationto the body. Several vaccines are available against many diseases such as tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, etc. Thus, these diseases can be prevented by providing a clean environment and by preventing the breeding of mosquitoes.
This can be achieved by not allowing water to stagnate around residential areas. Also, measures like regular cleaning of coolers, use of mosquito nets and insecticides such as malathion in drains, ponds, etc.
Introducing fish such as Gambusia in ponds also controls the breeding of mosquito larvae in stagnant water. Q2: In which way has the study of biology helped us to control infectious diseases?
Answer Various advancements that have occurred in the field of biology have helped us gain a better understanding to fight against various infectious diseases. Biology has helped us study the life cycle of various parasites, pathogens, and vectors along with the modes of transmission of various diseases and the measures for controlling them. Vaccination programmes against several infectious diseases such as small pox, chicken pox, tuberculosis, etc.
Biotechnology has helped in the preparation of newer and safer drugs and vaccines. Antibiotics have also played an important role in treating infectious diseases. Q3: How does the transmission of each of the following diseases take place? Q4: What measure would you take to prevent water-borne diseases? Answer Water-borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis B, etc. These water-borne diseases can be prevented by ensuring proper disposal of sewage, excreta, periodic cleaning.
Also, measures such as disinfecting community water reservoirs, boiling drinking water, etc. This protein kills the specific disease- causing organism in the host body and provides immunity. Q6: Name the primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Answer a Primary lymphoid organs include the bone marrow and the thymus. Q7: The following are some well-known abbreviations, which have been used in this chapter.
Q8: Differentiate the following and give examples of each: a Innate and acquired immunity b Active and passive immunity Answer a Innate and acquired immunity. Q9: Draw a well-labelled diagram of an antibody molecule. Q What are the various routes by which transmission of human immunodeficiency virus takes place? It has the following modes of transmission: a Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person. Q What is the mechanism by which the AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of the infected person?
After entering the human body, the HIV virus attacks and enters the macrophages. Inside the macrophages, the RNA of the virus replicates with the help of enzyme reverse transcriptase and gives rise to viral DNA.
CHAPTER 8 HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE QUESTION ANSWERS
At the same time, HIV enters helper T- lymphocytes. It replicates and produces viral progeny there. These newly formed progeny viruses get released into the blood, attacking other healthy helper T- lymphocytes in the body.
As a result, the number of T-lymphocytes in the body of an infected person decreases progressively, thereby decreasing the immunity of a person.Autotrophs and Heterotrophs B. Sunlight C. Chemical Energy and ATP 1. Storing Energy 2. Releasing Energy D. Using Biochemical Energy. Which cell processes require energy? Yes Some that wouldnt would be passive transport where you dont supply ATP for the process to happen.
Biochemical Energy Most cells contain only small amounts of ATP which is enough for a few seconds of activity. How do cells get the energy stored in ATP? Review of ATP 1. What does at ATP molecule consist of? What do the lines between these parts of the molecule represent? Chemical bonds 3. What would be the result if the 3rd phosphate group were removed? Energy is release when the bond is broken and ADP is formed. Investigating Photosynthesis 1. Van Helmonts Experiment Trees get their mass from water.
Jan Ingenhousz light is needed to make oxygen B. The Photosynthesis Equation C. Light and Pigments. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is divided into two parts or phases 1. The light-dependent reactions which take place in the thylakoids 2.
The Calvin Cycle light independent reactions taking place in the stroma Go to Section:. Light and pigments Pigments absorb sunlight to provide energy for energy-containing molecules.
Chlorophyll is a plant pigment that looks green because it reflects light in the green region of sunlight. Chlorophyll absorbs light in the blue and red regions of sunlight. Go to Section:. It is a product of the Calvin cycle, found in the stroma, and used in the light dependent reactions.
It is a carrier molecule which accepts 2 high-energy electrons from sunlight to produce NADPH which stores the energy in a chemical form. Photosynthesis is within a chloroplast! Photosystems- clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments. During photosynthesis. The source of carbon dioxide is the atmosphere The source of water is in thylakoids originally taken in from plants roots What happens to oxygen?
Its a byproduct released to the atmosphere. During the light dependent reactions What is the energy source? It splits off from the water molecule during the process of photolysis. During the Calvin cycle. What is the principal reactant?
Carbon dioxide What is the principal product?Join the discussion forum to discuss your educational doubts related to all subjects. Modification of cell envelope 2. Slime layer: Clycocalyx in form of loose sheath. Capsule: Glycocalyx in form of thick and tough sheath. Mesosomes: Extension of plasma membrane. These can be in the form of vesicles, tubules and lamellae.
It is not covered by nuclear envelope. Cell Membrane-Singer and Nicolson gave fluid mosaic model. According to this the quasi-fluid nature of lipid enables lateral movement of proteins within the overall bilayer; two types of proteins Peripheral and integral proteins with cholesterol, glycolipids and glycoproteins. It is non-living rigid structure which gives shape to the cell and protects cell from mechanical damage and infection, helps in cell-to-cell interaction and provides barrier to undesirable macromolecules.
Cell wall of algae is made of cellulose, galactans, mannans and minerals like calcium carbonate. Plant cell wall consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins and proteins. First observed by Camillo Golgi in 2. Consist of cisternae stacked parallel to each other. Functions: Performs packaging of materials, to be delivered either to the intra-cellar targets or secreted outside the cell.
Important site of formation of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
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Membrane bound vesicular structures formed by the process of packaging in the golgi apparatus. Contain hydrolysing enzymes lipases, proteases, carbohydrates which are active in acidic pH. Also called Suicidal Bag. Function: Intracellular digestion. Visit to Discussion Forum to share your knowledge with your classmates.
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Chapter 8, Photosynthesis - Standardized Test Prep - Page 247: 1
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